Longitudinal flat-foot 3 degrees, diagnosis, treatment and prevention
Jul 03, 2018
Flattening is a fairly common disease.The large spread of flat feet is due primarily to the low incidence of congenital disorders of the foot, but to the fact that many professions, as well as modern life style in general, contribute significantly to the acquisition of this pathology.
Many do not give it serious significance, however, with progress it can deliver a lot of inconvenience.With the change in the shape of the foot, the distribution of load during walking is disturbed, which subsequently leads to violations of posture, which in turn can lead to negative consequences from a number of internal organs.
The deterioration of the damping properties of the foot, as well as an increase in the load when walking on the spinal column, lead to pain not only in the legs, but also in the back.It is important to discover this problem as soon as possible, since it is in childhood that this pathological condition is best amenable to correction.
- Longitudinal flatfoot of the 3rd degree - features of the classification of the disease
- Predisposing factors
- Possible manifestations of longitudinal and transverse flatfoot of 2-3 degrees
- Diagnostic features
- Treatment and prophylaxis, platypodia and service in the armed forces
Longitudinal flatfoot 3 degrees - features of classification of the disease
It has been accepted to distinguish several types of flatfoot, it can be:
- nym.In this case, the transverse part of the arch of the foot is touching the floor.The length of the foot in this case, as a rule, decreases, since there is a fan-shaped divergence of metatarsal bones.
- Longitudinal.In this form, the flat foot of the foot touches the floor almost all the way, and its length increases.
- Childrens.The setting of such a diagnosis is quite complicated due to the anatomical features of the child's organism.Before the age of 5-6 years it is almost impossible, because before this age and in completely healthy children the signs of a flat foot are determined.
- Traumatic.It can develop as a consequence of fractures of bones.Most often this version of flat feet occurs after fractures of the calcaneus or ankle.
- Ricky.Develops as a consequence of a constant load of body weight on the weakened pathological process of the mineral component( primarily calcium) of the foot bone.
- Paralytic.Occurs when the muscle paralysis.Most often it develops as a consequence of poliomyelitis.
- Static.The most common option, the development of which can also be prevented.It develops as a consequence of the weakening of the musculature and ligament apparatus, which in turn can be caused by a number of reasons.
To promote the development of this type of flatfoot, excessive body weight, work associated with prolonged standing in the upright position, and sedentary work can contribute.It can also be the result of a completely physiological process - aging.
Factors that can contribute to the development of flatfoot
There are quite a few reasons for this pathological condition, while a relatively small percentage of these factors can not be modified.Most often, changes in lifestyle can prevent the development of flat feet, or prevent the progression of the disease.
The reasons for the development of longitudinal flat feet of 2 and 3 degrees can be:
- The increase in body weight, and the consequent regular increase in load on the foot.
- Low-quality, incorrectly matched or unsuitable footwear.The greatest threat in this regard is too narrow options, as well as options on a too high heels.
- Lack of physical activity, which is most often associated with a sedentary lifestyle.In this case, the muscles and ligamentous apparatus weaken, which leads to deformation of the foot.
- However, excessive physical exertion can also lead to flat feet.This is typical for jumping sports, running.
- There is also a hereditary predisposition.This can be expressed in inherited defects of connective, bone, or muscle tissue, which leads to the appearance of deformation.
- Relatively rarely flat feet can be the result of some diseases( for example, rickets or poliomyelitis), or develop due to injuries to bones, muscles and ligaments of the foot.
Transverse and longitudinal flat feet 2-3 degrees - possible symptoms
Although longitudinal and transverse flat feet are different forms of the disease, however, their manifestations are quite similar.At the first degree, the complaints are most often absent, but for the second, and even more so the third degree, the appearance of disturbing patient manifestations is characteristic.
Such patients often complain about:
- When walking, fatigue and pain in the legs quickly occur.
- Pain sensations can occur when pressing on the middle of the foot.
- In addition to pain in the front of the foot may appear corns, which indicate an incorrect distribution of body weight.
- In the later stages, the deformation of the fingers is determined.
- In addition to pain, swelling of the feet as well as of the ankles can be observed.
- There are problems with the selection of shoes.It becomes more difficult to choose a convenient option.
- An increase or decrease in leg size in an adult can also be one of the manifestations of flatfoot.
In general, with flat feet of grade 2 or 3, the symptoms are already quite pronounced, but even in this case, not all patients turn to specialized care.
Features of the diagnosis process
First of all, draw attention to the characteristic complaints of pain in the legs, often the first and only symptom of the disease, which heralds the approach of the problem.The survey also identifies factors that could contribute to the onset of the disease - lack of, or on the contrary, excess physical exertion, professional predisposing factors, and much more.
It is possible to suspect the presence of flat feet not only by changing the shape of the foot, but an experienced doctor can assume the presence of the disease and the patient's gait.However, after the examination, as well as after the examination with the help of a subscope, a device that allows you to obtain a picture of the foot print, only a preliminary diagnosis can be established.
The final diagnosis can be made only on the basis of radiographic examination of the foot bones, i.e.After a thorough examination of the X-ray.
To confirm the diagnosis of flat feet, as well as to establish the degree of the disease, it is necessary to perform radiograph of the bones of the feet in two projections( the study is performed with the load on the feet - standing).
Radiographic determination of transverse and longitudinal flat feet has its own characteristics.In the case of transverse flatfoot, several lines should be drawn on the roentgenogram.
These are the longitudinal axes of the first and second metatarsal bones, as well as the main phalanx of the 1st finger.
Angles between these lines are measured and based on their values the degree is set:
- For the first degree between the metatarsal bones - up to twelve degrees, the deviation of the finger to twenty.
- At the second degree these angles are up to fifteen and thirty degrees, respectively.
- The third degree is characterized by angles of up to twenty and forty degrees.
- At the fourth - more than twenty and forty.
In determining the degree of longitudinal flatfoot, several other landmarks and other lines are used.Focusing on the strictly defined points of the calcaneal hillock, the first metatarsal bone and the scaphoid-wedge-shaped joint, a triangle with an upward blunt angle is drawn in the image.
The value of this angle, as well as the height of the vault, are the criteria for setting the degree:
- The angle is from one hundred and thirty to one hundred and forty and the vault is up to twenty five millimeters.
- Angle to one hundred and fifty five degrees and the height of the vault to seventeen millimeters.
- Over one hundred and fifty-five degrees the corner of the arch and its height less than seventeen millimeters corresponds to the most severe degree of the disease.
Longitudinal flatfoot of the 3rd degree, features of the treatment of the disease, the possibility of service in the army
In the early stages of flatfoot development, the treatment is predominantly conservative.We recommend warm baths that stimulate local blood circulation.Insole insoles, used at the first degree of flat feet, are ineffective at later stages of pathology development, at the second and third degree patients have to wear special orthopedic footwear.
Massage is actively used, as well as complexes of physical exercises that are aimed at strengthening the muscles and ligaments of the foot, which, although it can not eliminate the already formed disorders in adulthood, it can slow down or completely prevent the progression of the disease.
However, at the third degree of both longitudinal and transverse flatfoot conservative methods of treatment are already ineffective.In some cases, the only way out is surgical intervention.
It involves the artificial creation of the arch of the foot in one way or another.There are many options for operations, but it is still a palliative treatment - it does not eliminate the cause of the disease and does not restore the function completely.
The prospect of service in the ranks of the armed forces for conscripts with flat feet depends primarily on the degree of the disease, and, consequently, on the loss of function of the foot.Thus, the third degree of flatfoot is not only accompanied by a pronounced impairment of function, but also makes it impossible to wear the shoes prescribed by the statute.
However, young people have severe forms of flatfoot encountered infrequently, and often the maximum that such a draftee can expect is a restriction on service in certain arms.
Flattening is one of those diseases, the presence of which is often not paid attention for a long time.However, it should not be forgotten that the second and third degrees of development of this disease are accompanied by a serious decline in the quality of life and poorly suited not only conservative, but also prompt treatment.