The EU, being the largest political center,has in its composition to date, 27 states. However, in 2004, when it counted only 25 states, it became unmanageable and began to lose its democratic character. Therefore, at that time, the issue of adopting the Constitution for the European Union arose sharply. Several years of its development allowed to get a very democratic law, which was subsequently to be signed by all participating countries. But only 18 states signed it. Therefore, most of the norms of the law had to be either deleted or amended.
A new document on reforms was named"The Lisbon Treaty," he did not use the word "Constitution" and was signed on December 13, 2007 in the Portuguese capital by all twenty-seven states that are part of the European Union. Thus, this treaty replaced the old Constitution of the European Union and had the goal of reforming the European Union's governance system, and also became the basis for the functioning of the EU in the next twenty years.
The Lisbon agreement consolidated the balance between the interests and goals of the EU member states, thus giving the status of a "great power" to the latter.
The text of this treaty amended the mainthree documents of the European Union: the Treaty of Rome, the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty on Atomic Energy. The legal basis of the Union is two updated acts: DES and DFES, they both have equal legal force.
The DES includes the main tasks and objectives, the foundations andprinciples of the EU. It describes the methods of cooperation of the participating countries, as well as outlines the foreign policy activities of the Union and its security policy. ДФЕС considers a direction of policy of EU, its freedom, legality and safety, and also system of regulation of external communications, the finance.
Lisbon Treatyhas a number of protocols that forman integral part of the main contracts. So, they either clarify the provisions of the treaties, or form the position of certain states on various issues. In addition, the Treaty systematizes the principle of competence, that is, the European Union has no right to go beyond the competence that the participating countries provide to it.
The Lisbon Treaty also provides for thea three-level system of governance of the European Union, which consists of institutions that have powers, other bodies that are created based on decisions of institutions, and so-called institutions.
Two structures were added to the institutions: The Council, which is the highest organ of political power, and the Central Bank. The Council has a president who is elected for two and a half years, as well as the EU High Representative for Security Policy and Foreign Affairs. The number of members of the Council of Deputies must not exceed seven hundred and fifty-one.
The Lisbon Treaty provides that the three states constitute, so-called, the Chairmanship of the Council, this post is engaged for 18 months.
States Parties shall have the right among themselvesconclude contracts in the event that they do not contradict agreements that are signed by the European Union or will not go beyond its competence.
Thus, the Lisbon Convention gavethe European Union's ability to identify and conduct foreign and security policies, including dealing with the functioning of the internal market and the customs union, commercial, economic, territorial and social policies. In addition, the EU has the right to deal with issues of energy, law and order, transport, environmental and health problems and many other issues. The EU undertakes to provide assistance and support to all participating States in matters of education, culture, tourism and medicine.