Indicators and types of unemployment. Main problems
Modern market economy is characterized bya clear tendency to instability, which manifests itself in its special, cyclical development and a significant increase in prices. But the main indicator is unemployment. It is the difficulty of finding a place of professional activity for a large number of citizens is the basis for the further development of the economic crisis.
Scientists in modern literature very carefullythe problem of unemployment has been worked out. Its main indicators and species are singled out and described in detail. There are several classifications that have been developed for a number of reasons.
Frictional types of unemployment, which are expressedin the presence of brief periods of unemployment. They are necessary for the person in order to find a new place of service. But the most important problem is that it corresponds to the qualification and level of professionalism of this employee. Moreover, such a period is a voluntary choice of a citizen, which is difficult to influence.
As a rule, this type of unemployment will beto unite people who are unemployed because of moving to another place of employment. In addition, citizens may have already found a job, intending to proceed soon to it, or they are seasonal workers (construction, agriculture, and so on).
Structural types of unemployment includesituation where an employee is unoccupied for extended periods of time. These periods arise because of structural shifts in the economy, devaluating the skill level of some category of labor.
As reality shows, unemploymentstructural and friction types can exist both in dysfunctional and in prosperous periods. As a result, a total number of unemployed people of the two types is created, which is called the "natural unemployment rate."
Usually it will correspond to the situationmacroeconomic equilibrium. Since in this case full employment will correspond to the natural level of unemployment. For any state, this factor is not only catastrophic, but even habitual, arising from the wavy development of the country's economy.
Cyclic types of unemployment are caused by recessions andups of production. They appear in a certain situation. If there is a difference between its actual indicators and the natural rate, then these are the basic indicators of unemployment of a cyclic type. As a result, the actual volume of GNP lags behind the potential set value.
In addition to this classification, we can distinguish the following types of unemployment:
- voluntary (citizen does not seek to work) and forced (a person can not find a place in accordance with the existing claims);
- registered when an individual is officially registered in the field of employment;
- marginal (unemployment of disabled people, women, social lower classes, youth, other unprotected strata of society);
- Unstable, which appears due to temporary causes and economic downturns;
- seasonal, depending on fluctuations in the level of economic activity in certain sectors of the economy at a certain time of the year;
- technological, which is associated with the automation and mechanization of production, as a result of which some labor becomes superfluous and unskilled;
- institutional, which arises from the interference of trade unions and the state in setting wage rates.
The problem of unemployment is a world-class issue, since every country sooner or later faces it.