Homemade bread - the secrets of cooking in the oven
The rapid flow of life and the lack of high-quality food on the shelves revive the traditions of the past. People tend to the live fire of candles and fireplaces, hand made clothes and household items became a sign of good taste and individual style, organic foods and home cooking are now valued above fast food. Even the bread, many housewives began to bake themselves at home. A fragrant homemade round loaf with a crispy crust will decorate any table. He will turn an ordinary breakfast into a holiday and raise his mood for the whole day.
Creating bread with your own hands, you can be confident in its taste, quality and hygienic preparation. Homemade product is better stored and much more useful than the factory. The cuisines of the peoples of the world offer a huge number of recipes for experimenters and creative people. Having mastered a few simple secrets, any housewife will be able to pamper loved ones and surprise guests with air buns, crispy baguettes and bread.
Preparation for work
For bread making it is not necessary to purchase an expensive bread maker. And a simple oven will cope with this task. The form should be deep, with thick walls. Best suited aluminum pan. Some types of bread are baked even without special dishes, right on the baking sheet. The ingredients in most cases are simple and accessible.
Product Measure TableProductsGlass of 200 cm3gTable spoon, gTeaspoon, g
Take flour of the highest grade (10.0-10.3 g of protein). Live yeast is much more effective than dry. If the recipe indicates the amount of dry matter, you can convert it to an equal amount of fresh product. It is known that 16 g of dry yeast is equal to 50 g of live. In some types of bread, you can add cheese, herbs, paprika. It is worth experimenting with a well-developed recipe, otherwise the taste may be unpredictable.
The secrets of the kitchen
Before you start baking the first loaf, consider a few little tricks,which will help to avoid mistakes.
- The liquid, on the basis of which the dough is kneaded, must be warm. The same applies to flour, eggs and other ingredients. If the products are brought from the store "frost" or taken out of the refrigerator, they must be kept at room temperature. The temperature to activate the yeast fermentation process is approximately 25-28 ° C.
- Flour need to sift. Due to this, it is enriched with oxygen and facilitates the work of yeast. And ready-made pastries are tender and lush.
- Souring the food, it turns out the starter, which will improve the taste of baking and increase the shelf life several times. Plain yeast bread is stored for three days. Sourdough bread stays fresh for up to ten days.
- Mixing ingredients, you should add flour to water, and not vice versa. So it is easier to get a lot of the desired consistency.
- Knead the dough with your hands. It is ready when it stops sticking to the fingers.
- The dough is covered with a towel and left to ferment for 4-6 hours in warm (30-35 ° C). The readiness of dough determines its elasticity. If you lightly press it with your finger, the fossa slowly flattens. If the fermentation is inadequate, it levels off very quickly, and if the fermentation is excessive, the dent remains.
- During the fermentation process, the dough is crushed two or three times. At the same time carbon dioxide comes out of it.
- The dough should occupy no more than two thirds of the volume of the form, as it will increase during baking.
- Put the brew in a hot oven. Baking temperature is slightly different in different recipes. 220-260 ° C is considered optimal. So that the bread does not burn, large salt is poured on a baking sheet or “cabbage leaves” are put under each loaf “in the old manner”. A foil or paper moistened with water will protect from excess heat.
- Do not open the oven during cooking. Bread, like dough, does not like temperature drops and drafts.
- The bread's readiness can be checked by piercing it with a wooden toothpick or a match. If the mistress is not afraid of getting burned, you can take the bread out of the oven and knock on the bottom crust. The sound should be ringing.
- The finished loaf is recommended to slightly moisten with hot water, cover with a towel. It is better to wait until cool. If cut hot, the crumb in the middle will stick together.
The classic recipe for rye bread
Rye bread is made from two types of flour in equal proportions - rye and wheat. Without wheat, the dough will not be able to rise, rye will give a colorful taste.
- Rye flour and wheat flour - 300 g;
- Dry yeast - 10 g;
- Vegetable oil - 35 g;
- Salt - 10 g;
- Sugar - 25 g;
- Water - 400 ml.
- In a wide container, yeast and sugar are diluted with water. Wait until the foam is about fifteen minutes. Add butter, salt and sifted flour. It is introduced in small portions, stirring constantly, until a stiff dough is obtained.
- To make the dough fit, it is left to warm in a large, closed pan. After two or three hours, the brew must be kneaded again and put into the form. Another hour the dough should be parted. At this time, it is covered with a towel or package.
- The mold is placed in an oven heated to 180 ° C for 40 minutes.
Sourdough Rye Bread
Sourdough is a natural yeast. It is prepared for several days, but then stored for a long time. Sourdough bread is much tastier than yeast.
Ingredients for the leaven:
- Rye flour - 150 g;
- Water or sour milk - 150 ml.
Ingredients for the dough:
- Flour rye - 350 g;
- Wheat flour - 60 g;
- Vegetable oil - 40 g;
- Sourdough - 5 tablespoons;
- Water - 200 ml;
- Salt - 20 g;
- Sugar - 30 g
- Ferment preparation. Flour diluted in warm water. The container is loosely closed and placed in heat.At least once a day, the ferment should be mixed and be sure to “feed up” with a small amount of water and flour. The right leaven is bubbling heavily. On the fourth day you can use it. The remains are stored in the refrigerator until the next time, “feeding” only once a week.
- Sourdough diluted in water, add sugar, salt, butter. Flour is introduced gradually. The dough is soft enough to stir it with a spoon. In a sealed container, it is suitable for about 10-12 hours.
- It is desirable to lubricate the form, fill the dough to half and leave for another hour.
- Bake in an oven preheated to 200 ° C for about an hour.
Simple yeast-free bread on kefir
If you replace the yeast with kefir or whey, you get a dietary product. It is absorbed by the body much easier than cooked with yeast.
- Wheat flour - 300 g;
- Kefir - 300 ml;
- Soda - 10 g;
- Salt - 10 g;
- Sugar - 10 g.
- The dry ingredients are mixed and gradually introduced into kefir. Mass should not stick to hands.
- The dough is resting under the film for about an hour. Round loaves are formed that can be cut on top for beauty and lightly sprinkled with flour.
- Baked at 220 ° C for an hour.Then the temperature is reduced to 200 ° C and kept in the oven for another half hour.
Another option for dietary bread for those who care about health.
- Flour wholegrain - 550 g;
- Vegetable oil - 60 g;
- Dry yeast - 8 g;
- Sugar - 30 g;
- Water - 300 ml;
- Salt - 30 g
- The yeast is mixed with a portion of the flour and sugar. Dilute with water and insist 20 minutes.
- Add salt, butter and the rest of the flour. It turns out a soft dough. It is kneaded by hand for 5-10 minutes and left under the napkin for half an hour.
- Again, crush, form a ball and lay out in a greased form.
- Bake half an hour at 200 ° C.
The product will be dense, slightly moist inside. When cutting does not crumble.
How to bake Borodino bread
Favorite bread with savory taste is also easy to cook at home in the oven.
- Wheat flour (grade 2) - 170 g;
- Flour rye - 310 g;
- Sunflower oil - 40 g;
- Yeast - 15 g;
- Rye Malt - 4 tsp;
- Honey - 2 tsp;
- Cumin - 1 tsp;
- Coriander - 2 tsp;
- Water - 410 ml;
- Salt - 10 g.
- Malt is brewed with a small amount of boiling water. Yeast with honey is diluted with lukewarm water.After 15–20 minutes, the yeast will foam and the malt will cool. All products can be connected.
- Knead the dough, cover and put in heat.
- After half an hour, put in the form, sprinkle with cumin and coriander.
- Bread is baked at 180 ° C for about an hour.
Crunchy, alluring, legendary baguette! Business card of any chef.
Ingredients for sponge:
- Wheat flour - 250 g;
- Water - 170 ml;
- Dry yeast - 3 g.
Ingredients for the dough:
- Dry yeast - 12 g;
- Wheat flour - 750 g;
- Water - 500 ml;
- Salt - 20 g.
- A pinch of yeast is diluted in 200 ml of water. After a few minutes, 250 g of flour is added to them. Opara infused 12-16 hours.
- The remaining yeast is diluted with water, mixed with brew flour and salt. Knead the dough thoroughly and leave to “stand” 1-1.5 hours under the film.
- Mass is divided into 6 parts. Each part is stretched by hand and rolled into a dense roll. Edges bend inside. Billets of 50 cm in length and 4 cm in width are obtained. Within an hour, they "stand up" on the baking sheet.
- Making diagonal cuts on baguettes, put the baking tray in the oven for 20 minutes at 240 ° C.
It is believed that homemade bread - a troublesome, expensive and ungrateful. As a rule, those who never baked it think so. Housewives familiar with the technology of baking at home, express the opposite opinion. The main thing is to find a reliable recipe and follow simple cooking rules. And of course, in this case a bit of enthusiasm and patience are needed. If you are not afraid of difficulties, fragrant and magnificent result will reward you for your efforts.