Gatchina: population, area, city history, geographical location
How did Gatchina appear? The Leningrad region is proud of this city, located about eight kilometers south of St. Petersburg. With the northern capital of Gatchina connected Kiev highway, which gradually turns into Pulkovo. Let's talk about this unique and beautiful city, which is often called the distant suburb of St. Petersburg.
Interesting pages of history
How did Gatchina appear? The history of the city is unique, it is connected with the reign of Catherine II. It was at that time that a huge estate was located here - the Gatchina manor. The Empress erected the Great Gatchina Palace. In 1783, the Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich, the future Russian emperor, became the owner of this luxurious mansion. It is with him that there are original park buildings, large-scale works are under way to restructure the palace. By decree of Pavel Petrovich in 1796 Gatchina receives the status of the city.
Appearance of the name
How did this unusual name come about - Gatchina? The description of the history of the city indicates that earlier there was located the village of Hotchino. The first mention of its existence dates back to 1500, found in the Novgorod scribe book. Further, the settlement appears in the Swedish books of 1618-1623 as the village of Hotzino by, located in the Diagilinsky churchyard. There is a version according to which such a toponym originated from the abbreviated form "hot" of one of the personal Old Russian names (Khotina, Khotimir). The second version considers the word "hot" as a version of the ancient word "hatsha" (a plot on which arable was burned in the forest).
There is another version, according to which the place of Gatchina once was a temple of the pagan goddess Hocheni, hence the name of the village Hotchino.
By the middle of the 17th century, instead of a deaf consonant "x", the letter "g" appeared in the title, as a result, the village became known as Gotchino, and then the Gotchin manor.
By the end of the same century, the name "Gotchino" finally passes into a modern form. Emperor Alexander III often called these places "dear Gatchina."
In 1923 Gatchina was renamed. Leningrad region in those days underwent serious changes, so, Gatchina turned into Trotsky. Lev Davidovich Trotsky repelled Krasnov-Kerensky's campaign in 1917, and also became an active participant in the defense of Petrograd in 1919. It was for these services that a decision was made to encourage Trotsky, and as a pleasant gift Gatchina was renamed Trotsky.
After the expulsion of Trotsky outside the USSR (1929)the city was called Krasnogvardeysky. During the Great Patriotic War (1942), fascist invaders named him Lindemannstadt in honor of the commander of the 18th Army of Lindemann. This name was not adopted by the state power of the USSR. In 1944, the city was returned to its historical name - Gatchina. The population knows the history of their small homeland, is proud that every corner of this amazing place is filled with important historical moments for the country.
Pride of citizens
What is Gatchina still proud of? The population of this city knows that in 2015 their small homeland was awarded the honorary title "City of Military Glory." During the Great Patriotic War, German occupiers were on this territory.
It was at this time was seriously destroyedpalace and park ensemble of Gatchina. After the war, reconstruction works were carried out in the city, new residential areas were created, an institute for nuclear physics was established, and large industrial enterprises began to function.
The convenient geographical position of Gatchina is madethis city is a major industrial center of the Leningrad region. In 1985, the Gatchina Palace opened after some serious restoration works some rooms for free visits.
In 1999, the winner of the All-Russian competition,aimed at identifying the most comfortable Russian city with a population of up to one hundred thousand, was Gatchina. The population is proud to say such a high achievement.
Until 2010 the city had the status of a historicalsettlements. However, according to the order of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, at present Gatchina is deprived of this status. The population of the city still considers its city a place with a unique history. Here they try to take care of all cultural and architectural objects.
Ecology and climate
What is the climate characterized by Gatchina? It is characterized by an Atlantic climate with some features of the continental climate. Summer in the city can be quite hot, and the winter is much colder than in St. Petersburg. In January, the average daily temperature is -8 ° C, in July its value is estimated at +17 ° C.
Considering that large industrial enterprises are located on the territory of the city, the level of air pollution exceeds normative indicators.
The time zone of Gatchina is UTC + 3.
Population of the city
The area of Gatchina is 28.7 km2. By population, this city isleading positions in the Leningrad region. At the end of 2014, there were about one hundred thousand people living there, and the population continues to grow. Such an increase in the population can, in particular, be explained by the fact that many residents of St. Petersburg prefer to purchase housing there. In Gatchina, the cost of apartments is much lower, so in the morning people leave for work in St. Petersburg, and in the evening they return to their comfortable and comfortable apartments.
The emblem of Gatchina was approved in 1980 by the decree of Paul I. In 1917 it was abolished, but since 1995 it is again considered the emblem of the municipal entity "Gatchina town".
The coat of arms of the city of Gatchina was approved by Paul 13December 1800. On November 10 (23), 1917, it was abolished, and since 1995 it has been used as the emblem of the municipal entity "Gatchina Town". In the upper part of the shield, in the golden field, is a symbol of Russian statehood - a two-headed eagle. It is black, has golden paws and a beak. Red scarlet tongues are crowned with three crowns of the emperor. The average crown is large. The eagle holds a scepter and power in its paws. On his chest is a silver Maltese cross under the crown of the Great Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Above the cross there is a scarlet shield, which is burdened with the golden monogram name of Emperor Paul I. Under the cross on a blue background, you can see the golden letter G. As the primary colors of the coat of arms, use:
- The azure background represents greatness and softness;
- yellow tone is associated with generosity, justice, wealth;
- The black color is symbolized with fearlessness, courage, courage;
- white background is associated with purity and innocence.
The prevailing proportion of the population of this cityare Russian people. That's why interethnic conflicts and problems are not typical for Gatchina. In this city there are no guest workers, it is difficult to see people without a certain place of residence (homeless people). In Gatchina, a significant number of pensioners live, many here are young mothers with strollers, slowly strolling through the ancient streets of this beautiful city of the Leningrad region.
Characteristics of the districts
From the administrative point of view, Gatchina is a single whole, but the inhabitants unofficially divide in its territory several large microdistricts: the entrance, the airfield, Khokhlovo, the center, Marienburg.
This area is located at the entrance to the city fromside of St. Petersburg, where smoothly Kiev highway passes into the street on October 25, the main highway Gatchina. On the south side, the area is bordered by the 7th Army Street, which is a conditional border from the central part of Gatchina. In the area there are new residential complexes, the 121-Gatchina series with panel nine-storey houses prevail. The buildings are characterized by high thermal insulation characteristics, the presence of loggias, a triple version of their glazing. The area has excellent infrastructure, so there are many young families.
This area is a solid part of residentialof the fund. Here there are brick houses built in the second half of the last century. Despite its considerable age, there are quite expensive apartments. The charm of these places is given by the developed infrastructure, green picturesque courtyards.
This region of Gatchina is separated from the centralpart of the city by rail. It is located near the Baltic Station of Gatchina. The name of this district was given to him in the "inheritance" from those distant times when the active aeroflot was located here. Among the main advantages of this area can be noted the proximity of the station, the public transport environment, including St. Petersburg routes.
Living in this city is nice and comfortable, becauseit has a full-fledged infrastructure, an excellent transport network. In addition to the numerous shuttle buses, there are also social buses, where elderly people prefer to enter the Northern capital. In addition, you can get to St. Petersburg and the electric trains that come to the metro station "Baltiyskaya".
There are no problems in the daily life of citizens. In Gatchina, many food supermarkets are open.
Many Gatchins go to work in St. Petersburg. But this does not mean that there are no vacant places inside the city. Here there are many shopping centers, grocery supermarkets, so commodity experts, sellers, cashiers, forwarders are required.
In the city there are large enterprises:
- Gatchinsky house-building plant, which is considered the largest construction company in St. Petersburg.
- Gatchina SSK (Lenstroytrest).
It is difficult to find in Gatchina such a person whowould not know about the unique historical past of his small homeland. There are always a lot of tourists who dream of seeing the unique monuments of local architecture with their own eyes, taking a picture against the beautiful scenic spots of this city of the Leningrad region.