Authoritarian regimes: concept, attributes and types
Authoritarian regimes can be seen as a kind of"Compromise" between democratic and totalitarian political systems. According to a study conducted in 1992 by the international organization Freedom House, out of 186 countries, only 75 from the standpoint of democracy are "free", 38 are "not free", and 73 are "partially free" ". At the same time, Russia falls into the last category, which means that its political structure can also be considered authoritarian. Is it really? Let's try to figure this out together.
Authoritarian regimes: the concept and conditions of occurrence
Everything in our life develops cyclically, in thatnumber and structure of society. Being a transitional form from totalitarianism to democracy, authoritarian regimes often arise in countries where, simultaneously with the change in the social system, there is a pronounced polarization of political forces. Often, they are formed where long-term political and economic crises are observed, the overcoming of which by democratic means is very problematic. Authoritarian regimes often start under extreme conditions, when the country needs to restore order and provide society with normal living conditions. One person or a small group of people concentrates in their hands the main functions of political power, the existence of the opposition if allowed, then with very limited possibilities for action. The media is subject to strict censorship, the ruling organizations control the public, the participation of the population in government is minimized. At the same time, authoritarian regimes allow the existence of representative bodies, discussions, referenda, etc. can be held. However, the results of voting are often falsified, and public opinion in the media is "fabricated" by government bodies, that is, a certain ideology is imposed on society. Freedom and rights of a citizen are proclaimed, but the state does not provide them. In order to preserve their existence, authoritarian regimes subordinate themselves to courts and law enforcement agencies. Public administration is carried out mainly through command and administrative methods, at the same time, mass terror is absent.
Kinds and examples of authoritarian regime
This type of device has manyvarieties, the main of which are tyrannical, despotic, military and clerical. In the first case, power is usurped by one person, who exercises one-man rule. In the distant past, it was very common in Greece, and in the modern world is unacceptable. The despotic regime is distinguished by the "unlimited" power and is typical for countries with absolutist monarchy. His vivid example is the period of the reign of Ivan the Terrible in Russia, as well as the reign of Peter I. Such a regime is a relic of the past.The clerical (theocratic) regime is based onthe domination of religious leaders, who concentrate in their hands both secular and spiritual power. An example is Iran. The military dictatorial or simply military regime is based on the power of the highest military elite that seized control as a result of the coup. The dominant social and political force is the army, which realizes both external and internal functions of the state. Countries with an authoritarian regime of this type are Iraq under the rule of S. Hussein, Myanmar, as well as a number of countries in Tropical Africa.